Big6™ Skills Aligned with ICT* Literacy Standards
*Information and Communication Technology

Standards describe what students should know and be able to do. The Big6™ Skills is an information problem-solving process that can help students achieve educational standards by giving them strategies to accomplish the “able to do” part of the definition of standards.

Big6™ Skill

Standards for the
21st-Century Learner (AASL, 2007)

Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (ACRL, 2016)


Education Technology Standards
( ISTE 2016)

1. Task Definition

1.1.3 Develop and refine a range of questions to frame the search for new understanding.

1.2.1 Display initiative and engagement by posing questions and investigating the answers beyond the collection of superficial facts.


formulate questions for research

deal with complex research by breaking complex questions into simple ones, limiting the scope of investigations

determine the initial scope of the task required to meet their information needs

1. Develop topic.

3a. Students plan and employ effective research strategies.

3d. Students build knowledge by actively exploring real-world issues and problems, developing ideas and theories and pursuing answers and solutions.

4a. Students know and use a deliberate design process for generating ideas, testing theories, creating innovative artifacts or solving authentic problems.

2. Information Seeking Strategies

1.1.4 Find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to answer questions.

1.1.5 Evaluate information found in selected sources on the basis of accuracy, validity, appropriateness for needs, importance, and social and cultural context.

seek multiple perspectives during information gathering

utilize divergent and convergent thinking when searching

use research tools and indicators of authority to determine the credibility of sources

2. Identify potential sources.

4. Evaluate sources and information.

3b. Students evaluate the accuracy, perspective, credibility and 
relevance of information, media, data or
other resources.

3. Location and Access

1.1.8 Demonstrate mastery of technology tools for accessing information and pursuing inquiry.

1.3.2 Seek divergent perspectives during information gathering and assessment.

match information needs and search strategies to appropriate search tools

design and refine needs and search strategies as necessary

understand how information systems are organized in order to access relevant information

3. Develop, use and revise search strategies.

3c. Students curate information from digital resources using a variety of tools and methods

4. Use of Information

1.1.7 Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.

2.1.1 Apply critical-thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, organization) to information and knowledge.

1.3.3 Follow ethical and legal guidelines in gathering and using information.

organize information in meaningful ways

give credit to the original ideas of others through proper attribution and citation

4. Evaluate sources and information.

5. Recognize how to use information responsibly, ethically, and legally.

5c. Students break problems into component parts, extract key information, and develop descriptive models to understand complex systems or facilitate problem-solving.

2c. Students demonstrate an understanding of and respect for the rights and obligations of using and sharing intellectual property.

2b. Students engage in positive, safe, legal and ethical behavior when using technology

5. Synthesis

2.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to analyze and organize information.

3.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to organize and display knowledge and understanding in ways that others can view, use, and assess.

synthesize ideas gathered from multiple sources

draw reasonable conclusions based on the analysis and interpretation of information


6b. Students create original works or responsibly repurpose or remix digital resources into new creations.

6c. Students communicate complex ideas clearly and effectively by creating or using a variety of digital objects.

6d. Students publish or present content that customizes the message and medium for their intended audiences.

6. Evaluation

3.4.1 Assess the processes by which learning was achieved in order to revise strategies and learn more effectively in the future.

3.4.2 Assess the quality and effectiveness of the learning product.


1a. reflect on the learning process itself to improve learning outcomes.

The "Big6™ is copyright © (1987) Michael B. Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz. For more information, visit:
Compiled by Janet Murray from "AASL Standards for the 21st-Century Learner." © 2007. American Association of School Librarians. <>
“Framework for Information Literacy Competency for Higher Education.” © 2016. Association of College and Research Libraries. <>
TRAILS: Tools for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills <>
2016 ISTE Standards for Students, ©2016, ISTE® (International Society for Technology in Education), All rights reserved. <>

August, 2016