Big6™ Skills Aligned with ICT* Literacy Standards
*Information and Communication Technology
Standards describe what students should know and be able to do. The Big6™ Skills is an information problem-solving process that can help students achieve educational standards by giving them strategies to accomplish the “able to do” part of the definition of standards.

Big6™ Skill

Standards for the
21st-Century Learner (AASL, 2007)

Competency Standards for Higher Ed (ACRL, 2000)
(Performance Indicators)



(ISTE 2007)


1. Task Definition

1.1.3 Develop and refine a range of questions to frame the search for new understanding.

1.2.1 Display initiative and engagement by posing questions and investigating the answers beyond the collection of superficial facts.


1.1 Defines and articulates the need for information.

1. Develop topic.

3a. plan strategies to guide inquiry.

4a. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.

4b. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.

2. Information Seeking Strategies

1.1.4 Find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to answer questions.

1.1.5 Evaluate information found in selected sources on the basis of accuracy, validity, appropriateness for needs, importance, and social and cultural context.

1.2 identifies a variety of types and formats of potential sources for information.

3.2 articulates and applies initial criteria for evaluating both the information and its sources.

2. Identify potential sources.

4. Evaluate sources and information.

3c. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.


3. Location and Access

1.1.8 Demonstrate mastery of technology tools for accessing information and pursuing inquiry.

1.3.2 Seek divergent perspectives during information gathering and assessment.

2.1 selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information.

2.2 constructs and implements effectively-designed search strategies.

3. Develop, use and revise search strategies.

3b. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.

4. Use of Information

1.1.7 Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.

2.1.1 Apply critical-thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, organization) to information and knowledge.

1.3.3 Follow ethical and legal guidelines in gathering and using information.

2.5 extracts, records, and manages the information and its sources.

5.2 follows laws, regulations, institutional policies, and etiquette related to the access and use of information resources.


5. Recognize how to use information responsibly, ethically, and legally.

4c. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.

5a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

5. Synthesis

2.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to analyze and organize information.

3.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to organize and display knowledge and understanding in ways that others can view, use, and assess.

3.3 synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts.

4.1 applies new and prior information to the planning and creation of a particular product or performance.

4.3 communicates the product or performance effectively to others.


2a. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts or others employing a variety of digital environments and media.

2b. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

6. Evaluation

3.4.1 Assess the processes by which learning was achieved in order to revise strategies and learn more effectively in the future.

3.4.2 Assess the quality and effectiveness of the learning product.


1a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.

5b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.

The "Big6™ is copyright © (1987) Michael B. Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz. For more information, visit:
Compiled by Janet Murray from "AASL Standards for the 21st-Century Learner." © 2007. American Association of School Librarians. <>
“Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education.” © 2000. Association of College and Research Libraries. <>
TRAILS: Tools for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills
National Educational Technology Standards for Students, Second Edition , © 2007, ISTE® (International Society for Technology in Education),

April, 2011